Feb 6, 2018 in Exploratory

Hazard is unmistakable as an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to generate one way rather than another. In this paper,  I will handle the flood as one of the hazards.  Flood is unmistakable as Fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid (water in my case); in many cases in cases by changes in rainfall distribution in an expanse. This can occur when land that was not roofed with water is a film by water suddenly. This does not let people or occupants of the room to go and stay on the upper altitudes. Therefore, there is a requirement of having a primary or encyclopedic knowledge of flood risk in different spatial location over the world. This will simplify the process that involves the mitigations strategies for a given watershed to be affected by flood. There are typically four main components of vulnerability to flood; that is the financial, physical, infrastructures and social. This was evaluated using (GIS) geographic information system of environment.  The proposed methodology; proposed methods that could be used to make sure that hazards are the address and tries to provide less opportunity for it to happen again. The methodology suggests that it is the poor or improper use of land that does cause flooding. As a result,  six process could be used; the upper theme river shed; this is located at the upper stream of the south-west Ontario. This means that the Canada rounds at a risk of having floods if rainfall pattern changes. The was a study carried out by Forward Sortation Ares which suggested that it the inappropriate use of the immediate surrounding that causes floods (Foster, 1971, p. 43)

FSA shows that when a flood takes place, people die, and some are being displaced. The major concern of people is to reduce the human lose and property due to flood. This is to say that sustainable and effective management of flood; in order to address this issue it requires a holistic. The following diagram may help to assess and solve the problem of flooding.

This map is  indicating the place or area of study. I will tackle the upper Thames river basin. This river lies in the mid of south western Ontario; this goes occupies an area of 3500kilometers square. This area is occupied by approximated 422,000 people.  The basin is nested between the marvellous lakes Erie and Huron. This basin is known to be prone to flood.  The following table1 show the public safety and emergency preparedness Canada to flood related issues (Abbes, 2007, p. 56).

However, this area is prone to floods, and it has been known for the last five years. Therefore, at times people may just predict flooding based from the trends that it has been following. People may move from the basin to higher altitudes where water cannot reach them. This implies that they will be homeless. They do live behind their property upon which when water covers them; it leads to lose of this property. The displaced people do take refuge in schools. They are the helped the government to by the provision of food and other needs such as health services.   This results to  loss of lives and that of property, an indicator is usually introduced to see early measures could be taken (Mitchell & Herrera, 2011, p. 66).

In the upper Thames, cultivation or agriculture is practices. This means that people do clear land for cultivation. This means that the vegetation at the upper course of the river is cleared. This do cause the transpiration and evaporation rate to increase. The changes in the hydrological cycle are the one that is responsible for flooding; sometime the weather will change to suite the victims. This implies following some trend based on previous occurrences.  This means that one can learn the trend and move when the flooding are just about to occur (Abbes, 2007, p. 76).

However as much as flooding has many demerits, it does also have some advantages. Flood do help in underground recharge; this implies that the water under the ground could be may be acidic but upon flood occurrence, the water changes and become neutral or basic. In addition, when flood occurs, the fertile top soil is carried away by water (erosion).  This soil is carried to the lower course of the river and makes the river bank downstream to be so fertile; this is the main reason that do make the people in the areas to ready to more to other batter place that are not prone to hazards (Foster, 1971, p. 103)

The followings are the procedural steps that GIS came up with as a solution to flooding. The building layers in imported, in the table the specified type is specified this means that the all the attributes that are given to fore see that flooding does not occur anymore. This attribute may be in the form of a school, hospital or fire station. This selected buildings were  then reserved an s layers for referencing in critical facilities for the study, and lastly, than calculation for vulnerability is being obtained (Abbes, 2007, p. 45).

The affected people are then giving some care where they can be given health, food and other basic needs. The (UNDP) united nation development programme has a statistic that by the year 2004, an average of about 196 million of the people in more than 90 nations were exposed to flooding. These usually have impacts in the development in the sense that they lower rate of development. People in the area tend to lose much property during the occurrence of the hazards.  Consequently is remarkably few countries across the globe are left out, this implies that flooding is prone to occurring in the developing nations. Last but not least, over the last twenty one years, a little more than 86% of the entire nations are prone flooding. Therefore, one can easily calculate the vulnerability level and easily predict when the hazard if expected to occur again (Foster, 1971, p. 143).

In conclusion, the present study analyses that that there is more flood risks and vulnerability to hazards in the upper Thames basin. This is majorly cause by the effects of land effects. In mentioned in this paper, it deals with large region, which is the six radical damage centers in the watershed. This is caused by activities that people do in the respective upper course of the river. In addition, it is not only human beings who are affected by the hazards but also the animals. However, flooding may pollute and to some extreme level some animals may be swept away but the water. In this way,  the animals are affected.  Grazing of animals such as cattle also contributes to soil erosion leading to poor vegetation. The poor vegetation has an effect in the drainage pattern. This change in the drainage pattern is the one that is responsible for the flood in the river Thames (Mitchell & Herrera, 2011, p. 96).

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